Tuesday, August 25, 2020

African Americans Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

African Americans - Assignment Example The way that I picked the erroneous response to half of the inquiries on the test shows that my insight into Native American history, culture and contemporary everyday environments could be greatly improved. This may reflect something of a numbness about these issues in the public arena for the most part. The figures for self destruction endeavors among youngsters were stunning. Be that as it may, maybe all the more amazing despite everything was the way that inside an era of Columbus’ arriving in the Americas, over 95% of the Native American populace had been cleared out, both through brutality and irresistible ailments. The unfeeling treatment of the current American populace by the primary European pilgrims was clearly a horrible and dim period toward the start of present day American history. That Columbus requested every one of those on Haiti who neglected to give adequate amounts of gold to be executed, and the oppression of numerous Native Americans, exhibits a discernment with respect to those early pilgrims that the Native Americans were sub-par creatures †a recognition which we, living in the 21st century, appropriately find upsetting and unlimited. Maybe the primary concern I learnt is that, while awful shameful acts were submitted against the Native American populaces in past hundreds of years, from multiple points of view the vile day to day environments where a large number of their replacements live today implies that the time of abuse has not yet been finished. It is calming to consider that this difficult period in our nation’s history proceeds in some sense. Finishing this test, and perusing the authentic and social data it gave, causes me to see myself as lucky to live in an America where all Americans truly are residents. While genuine shameful acts remain, we can in any event be certain that the cutting edge US gives a superior domain wherein they can be settled. As a representative, I am struck by the imbalance of chance in our nation, with Native American youngsters

Saturday, August 22, 2020

buy custom The External Auditors essay

purchase custom The External Auditors article An outer inspector is an expert who performs budgetary review of the money related condition of the organization. The outer examiner is autonomous from the organization of which the person is playing out the review. What is the year-end? This is the finish of each money related or bookkeeping year. It doesn't make a difference what season since it very well may be in February or July. How is income perceived? Income is acknowledged after the count of the considerable number of merchandise or administrations sold by the organization at the year end. How is stock esteemed? The stock is esteemed dependent on the expenses of the merchandise and the price tag of the stock in the market. How is property and hardware amortized? Amortization of the property and hardware is done dependent on the enhancements made to the benefits and the market cost of the advantages. Moreover, the helpful estimation of the item is likewise calculted. What is the estimation of amassed amortization? 70.8 million dollars What is Jean Coutus approved offer capital? 118,916,582 class An offers 117,385,000 class B shares What number of normal offers are given? 229,792,498 regular offers What is the all out dollar estimation of the regular offers? 2.51 dollars per share What is the essential income per share? 614,400,000/118,916,582= 5.17 dollars per share What amount of money was given or utilized in working exercises? 2,321,700,000 dollars What was the estimation of property and gear bought? 564,400,000-528,400,000=36,000,000 What Canadian organization is Jean Coutus primary contender? Customers Drug Mart What is Jean Coutus latest market cost per share? 0.77 dollarsWhat are Jean Coutus latest value income? 0.77 dollarsWhat are the accompanying qualities in 2011 for Jean Coutu; (a) Current proportion 380,700,000/255300000=1.5 (b) Asset turnover 2,597,800,000/1045400000=2.48 (c) Interest inclusion 100.15 (d) Return on normal investors value 33.19 (e) Return on resources (180,200,000+100000)/1045400000=0.27 (f) Profit edge For the proportions to some extent C over (a-f) what are the business esteems? How do Jean Coutus proportions contrast with the business? a) Current proportion b) Asset turnover c) Interest inclusion d) Return on regular investors value e) Return on resources f) Profit edge When contrasted with the other business, Jean Coutu's proportion is performing better. It has great valuing methodologies. Purchase custom The External Auditors article

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Anxiety How Much Is Too Much

Anxiety How Much Is Too Much Anxiety is a physical and mental state thats totally natural for everyone to experience at different points in time. After all, its a state with an adaptive and protective purpose. Sometimes, however, worry can take on a life of its own. If anxiety is starting to hurt you rather than help you, if it’s difficult to control or making it nearly impossible to cope, it’s time to step back and evaluate the extent of the problem. Symptoms That Indicate Anxiety May Be a Problem The point at which worry and anxiety become an issue is somewhat subjective, though there are several different markers of severity and intensity that you might use to evaluate how reasonable or unreasonable your level of anxiety is. This might be hard to judge from inside the experience, but to start, trying stepping back and asking yourself questions such as: Is my anxiety hurting my relationships?Is it hurting my performance in school or at work?Am I frequently distracted by thoughts of what will go wrong in certain situations?Do I avoid activities that I might actually enjoy because of a looming feeling of dread?Do I constantly feel on edge or amped up,  even in the absence of a clear source of worry?Am I frequently blowing things out of proportion, even though it doesnt feel like I am ?at the moment? If the answers to any of these questions give you pause, or if youre finding them tough to answer, consider asking someone you trust about their perception of your anxiety and how it impacts your life. What to Do When Anxiety Is a Problem If you think your worry has gotten out of hand, an expert opinion can help to further clarify this. Meeting with a clinicianâ€"a counselor, social worker, psychologist, or psychiatristâ€"can help you to determine if your anxiety issue can be classified as a disorder, and which one. Clinicians will use diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders to determine whether or not your anxiety is excessive. This typically involves ?an assessment of how persistent your anxiety is, what types of symptoms you experience, how long they last, and how intrusive they are on your ability to get through life on a day-to-day basis.?? Generalized Anxiety Disorder Discussion Guide Get our printable guide to help you ask the right questions at your next doctors appointment. Download PDF Diagnosing an Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis of an anxiety disorder can be tricky. Many symptoms of various anxiety disorders overlap with one another, and it might take some time to tease out the primary problem. While some might have specific phobias others may have generalized anxiety disorder, otherwise known as GAD. Also, some people struggle with more than one type of anxiety disorder. Others can exhibit a number of significant symptoms, but not quite enough symptoms to meet the strict criteria for a given diagnosis. If this happens, you might be told that you have a “sub-threshold” anxiety disorder.?? Even if your anxiety is of the low-grade variety or doesnt meet the threshold for a firm diagnosis, that doesnt mean it’s not worth working on. In fact, from a practical perspective, it’s most important to pay attention to how anxiety interferes with your life, no matter how it manifests. A clinician can help you narrow down what’s wrong or identify helpful interventions, even if he or she is unable to determine a specific label for the problem. Next Steps Speaking with a physician or a mental health provider who knows you is the best way to figure out your next step(s).  Depending on the nature and extent of your anxiety, you may find one or a combination of a number of approaches useful. Mild or intermittent anxiety may improve when you use strategies such as these:Self-help resources (e.g., books, smartphone apps, and  online resources) that walk you through a series of exercises related to your anxietyRegular use of  relaxation strategiesIncreased daily activity or implementation of an exercise routineAny of a number of talk therapies For moderate to severe anxiety, cognitive behavioral therapy  (CBT) is the psychotherapy of choice with an encouraging evidence base to support its use.?? There are also medications that can help with persistent anxiety of any degree. How to Find a Mental Health Provider to Help With Anxiety To find a qualified clinician, check out referral resources including Psychology Today, The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies,  or  The Anxiety and Depression Association. Or, speak with your current physician about seeking a psychiatric evaluation with a  recommended  mental health provider.  For additional resources on mental health, check out the American Psychiatric Association (APA) blog. Find Help With the 7 Best Online Anxiety Support Groups

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Personal Narrative- Helping Others Essay example - 798 Words

Personal Narrative- Helping Others Declining standards of living and continuing exportation of our jobs have resulted in rising stress levels for all Americans. This results in negative effects on our well being – mentally, physically and emotionally. Some people seek to reduce stress levels by using alcohol and drugs. Some overwork themselves, resulting in mental breakdowns. The pharmaceutical giants pocket billions of dollars a year from sales of tranquillisers, anti-depressants, barbiturates, amphetamines, and other psychoactive medications. We know we must learn to control stress in safer, saner, and healthier ways. So we read about Yoga or Aromatherapy, or maybe Feng Shui. We think about doing stress-management courses.†¦show more content†¦Now we can unite -- across borders, oceans, continents – and work together in ways that were not possible before. How often do we hear about some injustice on the other side of the globe and think, â€Å"That’s awful. Something should be done about that.† And then we tell ourselves, â€Å"Well, there’s nothing I can do about it. I’m just an ordinary Joe Soap. I don’t have any power over these things.† But we do! The power is in our fingers. Consider, just for one moment: No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 5 - Universal Declaration of Human Rights Torture is abhorrent. Torture is illegal. Yet torture is inflicted on men, women and children in well over half the countries of the world. Amnesty International Amnesty International (www.amnesty.org) is a worldwide campaigning movement that works to promote all the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Nowadays, one can subscribe to an Amnesty list (www.stoptorture.org), occasionally receive an â€Å"urgent action† request email, click on a web address and sign an online petition on behalf of someone at risk. If you wish, you can then follow up with a more detailed letter (snail mail or often email) to the Government or rulers of the country involved. Amnesty provides allShow MoreRelatedContagious : Why Things Catch On By Jonah Berger979 Words   |  4 Pagesserved with a chilled split of champagne. It is ridiculous, but the response was incredible. Wein generated a buzz, and not only that, a conversation piece. The one-hundred dollar Philly Cheesesteak became contagious story, and it built a following, helping Barclay Prime win multiple restaurant awards. Barclay Prime definitely caught on, but the one-hundred dollar Philly Cheesesteak, at its core, is just a sandwich. It is ridiculous and a great introduction to the social contagion. The story itselfRead MoreMary Rowlandsons Captivity Narrative Essay1154 Words   |  5 Pagesstories and narratives to help create a rich literary history for America. Puritan literature has helped many scholars and readers learn about early American history. One of the most famous American narratives is from Mary Rowlandson, who was the wife of a Puritan Minister. Mary Rowlandson’s captivity narrative is about her story of how she was captured and treated by Native American captors. Throughout the narrative Mary intertwined her experience with her Puritan beliefs. The narrative has helpedRead MoreNarrative Therapy Offers a Rewrite of a Persons Life1797 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Often times, people live through painful events in their life that can alter their perception of themselves, their family, and the world. Narrative therapy offers the client the opportunity to re-write their story and gain a different perspective of specific events. It is important to understand that within the history of narrative therapy, therapists view client’s stories through a political lens. Often times, focusing on the oppression and cultural dominance that exists within theRead MoreThe World Of Reproductive Justice And Politics Essay1166 Words   |  5 Pagesblindness as an example of the perfect adoptee/immigrant. Their choice to adopt from these foreign countries is centered by their various privileged identities while excluding the children themselves due to their disadvantages. Take for example the personal documentary, First Person Plural, by Deann Borshay, in which an adult Korean adoptee tells her life story through her adoptive family, fictionalized family, and birth/biological family. Through her interviews with her adoptive family their reasoningRead MoreEssay988 Words   |  4 Pagesperfection. Each person’s narrative comes together—by the page, sentence, word, and punctuation. Our individual and collective experiences are all a part of the reality we ascribe to ourselves and the world, and like with any draft, parts of it may be scrapped for something new. With my career, I plan to answer two questions: 1) How can people learn more about their personal world and other people in a creative, engaging way? 2) How can one utilize and alter the multifaceted narratives that make up theirRead MoreNarrative Therapy By Michael White And Davis Epston1118 Words   |  5 Pages Theory Overviews: Narrative Therapy Narrative therapy was developed by Michael White and Davis Epston in during the 1980 s. Narrative therapy is described as a â€Å" collaboration and non-pathologizing approach to counseling and community work which centres people as the experts on their own lives† (Narrative Therapy Centre, 2014). The basis of this theory is to separate the person from the problem so they rely on their own skill sets to eliminate their problems. Narrative therapy allows people toRead MoreTreatment Models Chosen For Comparison1241 Words   |  5 Pages Treatment Models Chosen for Comparison 1. Narrative Therapy the role of the therapist, views of people and their problems, and the approach for helping. Narrative therapy is a way to look at a person’s life story and their struggles from an outside looking in approach. The problems become separate from the individual. Narrative therapy helps the client examine their life story from a strengths perspective. Instead of focusing on the problems the worker helps the client identify their strengthsRead MoreMultiple Theories Influenced The Development Of My Personal Model And Therapeutic Approach For Couples And Families1668 Words   |  7 Pagesmultiple theories have influenced the development of my personal model and therapeutic approach to couples and families. Three theories in particular that I draw my therapeutic approach from includes: narrative therapy, emotionally focused couple’s therapy, and attachment theory. I will articulate the theoretical underpinnings of these three theories and integrate them in one cohesive personal model called Emotional Enhanced Attachment Narrative Therapy. This paper will discus s my approach in regardsRead MoreThe Path to Aboliton 1312 Words   |  5 PagesAmericans striving to influence the participation of the abolition movement. One of the many strategies used by American abolitionists was the use of slave narratives. This moral persuasion was a very useful tactic. The creation of these narratives helped white northerners identify with the mindset of an African American slave in the south. The narratives illustrated the experiences slaves overcame to find freedom. Another major strategy that was useful to the slavery movement was the involvement of womenRead MoreTrip Reflection949 Words   |  4 PagesPlanning a trip may be the hardest part of the entire trip. Once you have your agenda everything else falls into place. In my trip, I had two other partners helping prepare for this spontaneous trip. Each of us had a specific duty when creating a section of the trip presentation and narrative. While creating this presentation I learned a lot about myself and about my partners as well. I believe when reading this the instructor will know that our team put in all a great amount of effort and worked

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Early childhood education such as preschool and...

Early childhood education such as preschool and kindergarten is a school where young students go to start their education as early as two. Some children skip preschool and go right to kindergarten. Some parents believe that it is better for their child to stay home longer with someone taking care of them one-on-one instead them taking care of a class of twenty. â€Å"Across countries, early childhood education providers differ tremendously† (Nores and Barnett). Obviously, a child learns even before they are in the education system and their skills develop rapidly (Magnuson and Shager). Learning starts at day one, a baby learns how to open their eyes, move their body and cry. Educational learning starts as soon as a child starts school no†¦show more content†¦The affects depend solely on the child himself. Another question that often arises from parents looking into education is whether their child will get fair and equal opportunities in school. Some schools have cla sses with too many students and not enough teachers so each individual student may not get the direct attention that they are in need of. A ratio of thirty children to one adult is not equal opportunities and each individual student may feel that the other students have taken over and run the place. â€Å"By fostering the development in the early years, they aim to ensure that all children- regardless of their social background- have the prerequisites for a successful start at school† (Burger). A child’s opinion towards school could be determined by the amount of attention and if they had fun with the class and the teacher. Preschool enrolment has steadily risen over the years and more parents are starting their children at an early age. But does starting them earlier really help the child, or does it help the parents. Studies have shown that as technology increases, parents get less involved with their child and hand them over to the school to take care of him for sev en hours a day. Lower income families tend to start their child in school earlier so that way they can go back to work and make money without having to pay a babysitter considering most daytimeShow MoreRelatedMy Personal Philosophy On Early Childhood Education1117 Words   |  5 Pagespersonal philosophy about early childhood education was vague despite all the experience I have accumulated over the years. I had never really sat down and put much thought into my own philosophy. During this process of gathering information about the thirteen functional areas, learning all the information that entailed with each competency statement, as well as collecting resource information, I was able to develop an idea of my personal philosophy towards early childhood education. In order for a teacherRead MoreMajor Connections Between Young Children s Development And Learning And Their Later Attainment And School Achievement1554 Words   |  7 Pagespoints to the major connections between young children’s development and learning and their later attainment and school achievement. In addition, negative courses for children who begin kindergarten behind their peers have been reported. These results make it necessary that preschool children have the basic foundation for upcoming school success and are ready when they enter kindergarten. In the past it was expected that children were ready for kindergarten if they were healthy and well-nourished;Read MoreEarly Childhood Education Is The Potential For Many Significant Outcomes1460 Words   |  6 PagesThesis Statement: Early childhood education has many benefits and there is the potential for many significant outcomes if universal preschools were put into place. Early childhood education has many benefits and there is the potential for many significant outcomes if universal preschools were put into place. Some feel that children who start kindergarten without previously attended preschool sometimes lack certain skills such as social and communication skills and an inability to follow routinesRead MorePreschool Education Essay1131 Words   |  5 Pages Preschool programs began in the United States during the first quarter of the twentieth century with the first public preschool opening in 1925 in Chicago at Franklin School. After the 1970s the popularity of preschools increased as women were entering the workforce and people believed that children needed initial skills before they attended elementary school. (â€Å"All About Preschools, History†¦Ã¢â‚¬ 2). Early childhood education plays a key role in a child’s academic development because he or she learnsRead MorePreschool Is An Imperative And Fundamental Stage Of Learning3059 Words   |  13 Pages Universal Preschool The topic of universal preschool has been the focus of much discussion and controversy statewide. In years past, preschools were ordinarily used as a day care and/or a place where children could go to socialize. However, today, young children are expected to have a considerably high amount of knowledge prior to reaching Kindergarten. This reveals why preschool, learning daycares, childcare, and programs such as Head Start have undoubtedly become quite popular over recent yearsRead MoreThe Career Field Of Early Childhood Education1746 Words   |  7 PagesAccording to Careers in Early Childhood Education, the field of early childhood education deals with teaching and education young children, commonly at a preschool level. Early childhood education appeared as a separate branch of education after several studies were conducted and told us that the time before a child goes to kindergarten are the most important for developing their learning abilities and social skills. Studies were c onducted by the Department of Education, and many other governmentRead MoreShould the Government Fund Public Preschools?1739 Words   |  7 Pagescan buy education. In this great country of ours, education is not a privilege it is a right. All children are given the opportunity to a free education. An education that should allow them to become high school graduates, 21st Century scholars, and prepare them as leaders to sustain this nation. What happens though when this is not the future for all children? The problem at hand is not all children are receiving the same educational opportunities. Not all children graduate from high school and notRead MoreWhy I Am A Teacher Essay1559 Words   |  7 Pagesassistant in a school for autistic children. Teaching is a challenging task. One shall perform his duty with the highest degree of excellence, professionalism, intelligence, skill, and with utmost devotion and dedication to ensure the quality of education. It is also the noblest profession. A teacher carries numerous responsibilities. Her task is not just simply delivering the lesson inside the four corners of the classroom but rather serves as the second parent of the students and thereforeRead MoreSpecial Education836 Words   |  4 PagesEarly Childhood Education Early childhood education is traditionally defined as any education-taking place before the primary grades of first through third grades in elementary school. It encompasses all education from birth to first grade, but usually the term is used to refer to the more formalized nursery or preschool environments and kindergartens. These classroom environments have different emphases from developmental to academic. The most appropriate type of educational structure for childrenRead MoreThe Need For Universal All Day Pre Kindergarten1255 Words   |  6 PagesPre-Kindergarten in Texas Many Texans agree that high quality pre-k can no longer be considered a luxury for upper income families or a special program for the disadvantaged. Based on various studies conducted on children s brain development during these crucial years, pre-k has become just as necessary as kindergarten or first grade. Currently, nearly half of all kindergarten teachers report that their children have problems that hinder their success. Children unprepared for kindergarten tax

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Western Humanities Free Essays

It is no exaggeration to say that the Romans have made profound impact on almost all civilized nations of the world and their culture is the cradle of many cultures of today (Rao, 113). The manner in which the Romans pick their girls has a whole lot to do with the laws governing marriage at that time. Before a marriage could be considered legal, both couples must be matured; for the girl twelve years and for the boy fourteen, the parents of the couple have to be fully aware; that is it has to be with the consent of both families of the bride and groom. We will write a custom essay sample on Western Humanities or any similar topic only for you Order Now During the Augustan age, families were forbidden any refusal of marriage without given any valid reason as to why they refused a marriage. Marriage between a close relation likewise ascendant and descendant marriage were also unlawful. There were two social classes during the early Roman period; the patricians who were the citizens and the plebeians who were the free non-citizens. During that time, the patricians only marry the patricians and the plebeians only the plebeians respectively as there was no inter-marital relationship between these two social classes. Marriage by the Patricians was considered a sacred institution which cannot be done just by merely saying it. Some manners of consideration have to be taken before a marriage could actually take place. With the direct consent of the gods, the patrician takes his bride from her father’s house to his own residence in the company of a representative of his clan. In this form of marriage, the bride is put under the authority of her husband and her husband in a way becomes her master. The plebeian marriage however consist essentially the cohabitation of a man and woman as husband and wife. Plebeian marriages were not recognized by the patricians as they were not considered citizens and even when the plebeians became citizens and their marriage were legalized, inter-marriage between the plebeians and the patricians were still not allowed because of the religious differences between them. But as years past, their laws were amended and the marriage between the social classes now became possible. The early Romans married at a relatively early age as a girl was considered ready for marriage between the ages of fourteen and seventeen. Her father would choose a husband and perform the required arrangements. Though young Roman children were not forced into marriage, very few children were able to refuse an arranged marriage (Mellor). Betrothal before marriage was considered a good form although it had no legal obligation attached to it. Betrothal involves a girl been promised solemnly by her family to the man or his family. This process in most case is represented by the man giving the prospective wife a ring. The ring is worn on the third finger of the left hand which the Romans believed had a direct link with the heart, as they believed that the finger had a connection with the heart by a nerve. It was customary point of pride with the Romans for the bride to bring her groom a dowry which was provided by her family if she is still dependent on them or by herself. The bride is dressed by her mother on the morning of her wedding day; one of the most significant parts of the dressing was the â€Å"knot of Hercules† who was considered the guardian of wedded life (Rome exposed – Roman Children). The groom is the only one permitted to loose the knot once it is tied and this is done after the wife has been accompanied to her new home. After the marriage ceremony, there is usually a dinner (reception) in the house of the bride after which she is then accompanied to her husband’s house by her family members. On entering into her new home, the bride is carried into the house so as to prevent any bad omen that may result if she stumbles upon her first entrance into the house. Until the first child is born, marriage itself is not regarded as having been consummated. This is because the Romans believe that children are of paramount importance in order for a marriage to be considered blissful. However husbands and wives could tend to love each other as time goes on. The Roman women enjoy social freedom as they could attend both public and private banquets in the society. After marriage, the social status of a Roman woman increases as she is raised to the rank of her husband and is considered equal with him sharing the same religious and civil status with him. Her responsibility however is to govern the home and being the mistress of the house, she oversees the education of her children as well as the slaves. During the Augustan age women had more encouragement to bear more children because of the privilege associated with it. The moment a woman has three children, she would be released form all supervision and was free to conduct business by herself (Bierkan, Sherman Stocquart, 303-327). One could safely say that the Roman woman was vast and sophisticated when compared to her counterparts like the Greeks and this was due to the privileges given to her by the society. How to cite Western Humanities, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Anthrax Vaccination Program Essay Example For Students

Anthrax Vaccination Program Essay On May 18, 1998, Secretary of Defense William Cohen approved a plan to vaccinate all U.S. service members for anthrax. This plan has caused a fierce ethical debate over the legitimacy of this vaccination. The Department of Defense claims the vaccination is completely safe and has been in use for decades. Some doctors dispute this claim, and contend the vaccination may not be effective against weapon versions of anthrax. Many service members have refused the vaccination and have either separated or faced formal punishment for their decision. The Bioport Corporation of Lansing Michigan is the only company that produces the anthrax vaccine. According to a Phoenix Times article, the original Bioport plant had to be demolished due to quality control problems. A new plant was built, but it also failed FDA inspections in December of 1999. Subsequently, the process of administering the vaccination to all service members has been suspended. The vaccination is currently administered only to pe rsonnel deploying to high threat areas of the world. The Joint Staff has designated Korea, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Yemen, and Israel as high-threat areas. The immunization is administered in a series of six shots over an eighteen-month period, with annual boosters. The following analysis will contain a brief discussion about both sides of this issue. To understand why the Department of Defense feels it is essential to take such precautions, it is first necessary to have some understanding of what anthrax is. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia defines anthrax as a contagious disease of warm-blooded animals, including humans, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. There are three types of anthrax diseases. The first is cutaneous anthrax, which is caused by contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. The second type is gastrointestinal anthrax, which is caused by ingestion of contaminated meat. The last typ e is inhalation anthrax, which is the type used in biological weapons. It is caused by the inhalation of anthrax spores and it is the most deadly type of the disease. One of the most effective defenses against inhaling the deadly spores is a properly worn gas mask. The DOD fears that by the time an attack is detected, it will be too late to don protective clothing. Theory suggests that immunization may be the only chance of surviving an attack. With so many biological weapons in production, one may wonder why bother with a vaccination that is only going to protect personnel against one type of weapon. The DOD feels that anthrax spores are the top choice in biological weapons for germ warfare. They say it is one of the most effective biological weapons because it is almost always deadly if not treated early. In addition, it is relatively simple to manufacture in large quantities with only a basic knowledge of biology. The spores can be stored for long periods with no deterioration, a nd it can be delivered easily using missiles, rockets, artillery, bombs or sprayers. Once the weapon has been dispersed, there are virtually no indications of exposure. The vapor is odorless, colorless, taste-free and leaves no cloud. DOD claims there is no effective treatment once exposure has occurred. They suggest antibiotics will suppress infection, but only if they are administered within 48 hours of exposure. They also claim unprotected individuals have a 99% chance of death after exposure. The Secretary of Defense has stated that it would be derelict l to send troops into one of the high threat areas without this vaccination. Other senior officers have frequently used the analogy It would be like sending troops into harms way without a helmet or flack vest. This theory brings up a question about whether the vaccination is safe and effective. DODs point of view suggests the vaccine is safe and will work. Their anthrax web site uses the reasoning that we already receive vaccine s to protect against typhoid, yellow fever and many other diseases, so it makes sense to protect ourselves against this killing disease which can be used as a weapon. The vaccine was developed for human use in the 1960s and approved by the FDA in 1970. DOD states that it has been routinely administered to at risk wool mill workers, veterinarians, live stock handlers, and laboratory workers since that time. They acknowledge that receiving the shots will cause mild reactions but claim there have been no patterns of long term side effects or delayed side effects. They also admit it has not been tested for use against the inhalation type of anthrax in humans because it would be unethical to conduct such research. They site a study conducted using 25 monkeys in which, after exposure, all but 1 survived to prove effectiveness of the vaccine. The bottom line for the DOD is they feel it is unethical to allow personnel to be exposed to the anthrax threat without every protection currently av ailable. People who oppose the present anthrax policy have a completely different perspective about the vaccine and the company that produces it. As mentioned earlier, the Bioport plant has encountered several problems with the FDA. The facility which produced the vaccine was state owned until 1997. When the FDA threatened to revoke its license, Michigan sold it to the Bioport Corporation. One of Bioports most visible corporate directors is former chairman of the Joint Chiefs, Adm. William J. Crowe Jr. Less than a month after Bioport took over they signed a $25.7 million contract with the DOD to produce the vaccine. Shortly after that the CEO went to congress and told them that Bioport was incurring losses that could not be sustained in the future. Subsequently, DOD increased the contract to $49.8 million but would receive 25% less vaccine. Opponents of the mandatory anthrax vaccination program consider it more of a moneymaking scheme than an essential protection for our military. A n additional concern is whether the vaccine will actually work. While the DOD sites studies with monkeys to prove it will work, other doctors site studies using mice and guinea pigs to dispute that claim. Dr. Meryl Nass, an expert on biological warfare has testified before congress twice about the anthrax program. She says the program will not work. Vaccinating everyone against one particular strain of anthrax, or one particular biological weapon, for that matter, would only protect them against that one thing. The enemy forces could then merely develop a new strain of the disease or another type of biological weapon making the whole effort moot. She also disputes the DODs claim of only minor adverse reactions being reported. Her research has shown that the vaccine can cause chronic symptoms that often worsen after the fourth shot is administered. Initially, she says, many experience abdominal cramping, diarrhea, fever, chills and a headache. Later symptoms can include chronic fatig ue, dizziness, joint and muscle pain, headaches, memory loss, sleep disorders, chest pains and recurring rashes. She contends the Vaccine Adverse Event reporting System is not effective because it is voluntary. She fears some people do not report problems because they are afraid of loosing jobs or being forced into medical retirement. The bottom line for the opposing side of this issue is the vaccine has not been sufficiently tested and there is no proof it will actually work. They contend the threat has been around for over 100 years, so why is it imperative to vaccinate now. Therefore, to them, the mandatory program is unethical. The debate and confusion over this issue is not going away in the near future. People opposing the vaccine want the program terminated. The DOD is not backing down from the mandatory inoculations. In an Air Force News article released Feb 18 2000, DOD officials say they have no intention of ending their program despite a House of Representatives panels re commendation that it be suspended. Dr. Sue Baily, assistant secretary of defense for health affairs, holds the position that the vaccine is very safe and effective against a biological agent produced by many of our adversaries. She says, Were service members not vaccinated and exposed to this agent, they would die a horrible death. It is our mission to protect those forces. It seems service members will continue to face the decision of whether to take the vaccination or not. It will ultimately be up to the individual to determine if it is worth receiving punishment or ending a career if they refuse the lawful order. 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